artikel umum

Why Almost All Of Junior And Senior High School Students Fail To Learn English and How to solve it?
( by Faiz/Khazin)
Abstract
Many teachers are not successful to teach English either in Junior or Senior High School. They haven’t got the best way to teach. They follow many kinds of workshop to make teaching preparation and to change their own method of teaching. But one most important thing they forget in giving motivation to the students. This is the problem why the teachers fail to make the students get four kinds of language skills.

Key words: motivation, intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, strategy

Introduction
The failure of teaching English in Indonesia has become the main topic in every discussion among the people’s conversation. This condition has made the important educated people blame one another. This is just caused by their wrong perception about understanding foreign language learning and foreign language acquisition.
The education curriculum has been changed many times with the reason that it is not suitable anymore or something else. It has made the English teachers make teaching preparation and have to change theirs every four years or even every two years. It forces the teachers to do what the curriculum wants the teachers to do.
The English teachers have been invited to everywhere to follow what is called English teaching workshop. They are trained to make many kinds of teaching preparation making all of the teachers bored. Instead of thinking about how to teach and how to make the students enjoy learning they are busy sitting, writing, preparing their teaching planning because of their fright of their headmaster or the education controller. They are demanded to know well how to plan a lesson and to make other teaching preparation while the motivation with which the students will get a big success is almost forgotten. They almost never get special knowledge about arousing the students’ motivation, intention to learn.
And something becoming the viruses in all the teachers’ mind is UAN. Some teachers try to do “ learning English activity happily” despite their fright of the students’ failure in their last examination. The teachers hope the students to be able to speak a little bit English and become interested in learning English. On the other hand, the students NOT YET get complicated rules offered by the curriculum.
Many kinds of books have been printed and sold to the students without being carefully revised. The most important thing is that the books give high profit to the teachers, especially the low teaching motivated teachers. The books are said to be communicative approach but the content is really the traditional one. This also supports the failure of our English education.
For these reasons this article is aimed at giving description of learning English as a foreign language. And this is hoped to give contribution to all English teachers especially in motivating the students to learn English.
That’ why?
How can teachers motivate students to study English? And how can motivation increase the students’ ability to speak English?
Language learning heart strategy has been ignored for many years. It is really neglected heart of language learning. It is the most possible pathway in the realm of language learning motivation.

Motivation
What is motivation? Well let me write you some definitions drawn from a number of different sources: (1) motivation is the cause to act in particular way. (2) Motivation as “the anticipation of reinforcement. (3) Motivation is the extent to which you make choices about (a) goals to pursue and (b) the effort you will devote to that pursuit. (4) Effort, desire to learn a language and attitude toward learning the language are viewed as motivation.
This article stresses various ways of improving the student’s motivation to learn. Whatever the type of motivation is intended to enhance the student’s spirit to win the four kinds of language skills.

A. Elements of motivation
Gardner (1985b) stated that motivation is composed of four elements: (1) a goal 2 (2) A desire to get the goal (3) Positive attitude toward learning the language (4) and effortful behavior to the effect.

B. Motivational components that are specific to learning situations
Three sets of motivational components:
1. Course specific motivational components concerning the syllabus, the learning materials, the teaching method, and the learning tasks.
2. Teacher specific motivational components concerning the teacher’s personality, teaching style, feedback, and relationship with the students; and
3. group specific motivational components concerning the dynamics of the learning group. Groups are formed for a purpose, to have fun to learn.

B. Types of motivation
Dornyei emphasizes many aspects of learning motivation, but the writer is just interested in discussing about teaching strategies dealing with motivation, intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Highly motivated students will find themselves how to choose suitable learning strategies and determine their own attitude to the target language. And the writer considers that all normal human beings will get advantages of taking part in language learning interaction.

Intrinsic Motivation
Motivation is the first requirement to be successful in foreign language learning. The highly motivated students will learn faster than those who are not well motivated. Brown(1994) states that motivation is probably the most frequently used term for explaining the success of failure virtually any complex task, including L2/FL learning. Never say “that is wrong or that is not right” but motivate the students by saying “good” and hide the students’ mistakes by stating “almost right, but”. Keep the language politeness while teaching. Don’t use difficult patterns because this will destroy the students’ spirit or even they will hate the language target. Use conversational grammar because it is based on how people actually talk. It includes small chunks, mostly clauses and single words rather than complete sentences. This is true for both interactional and transactional turns and use authentic materials and media. Although they must be prepared and need a lot of time to make them there are very strong reasons to use them. Authentic materials and media can reinforce for students the direct relation between the language classroom and the outside world. In addition, authentic materials and media after a way to contextualize language learning.
One of the teachers’ duties at school is to motivate students by engaging their interest in classroom activities or outside classroom activities. One way in which intrinsic interest in L2/Fl learning might be achieved is by providing opportunities for communication. McNamara(1973) has argued that the really important part of motivation lies in the act of communication. Rossier(1975) also emphasizes the importance of a desire to communicate, arguing that without this an integrative motivation may not be effective. It is the need to get meanings across and the pleasure experienced when this is achieved that provides the motivation to learn an L2/ FL.
One possibility, supported by a strong pedagogic literature is that interest is engendered if learners become self-directed, able to determine their own learning objectives, choose their own ways of achieving these and evaluate their own progress.
As Finocchiaro (1981) puts in:
Motivation is the feeling nurtured by the classroom teacher in the learning situation. The moment of truth-the enhancement of motivation-occurs when the teacher closes the classroom door, greets his students with a warm, welcoming smile, and proceeds to interact with various individuals by making comments or asking questions, which indicate personal concern.

Intrinsic motivation in Education
Traditionally the teacher in elementary and secondary school give rewards to the students to enhance the students’ motivation. The students have a high desire to learn because of the prize or else, but they don’t have an internalized thirst for knowledge and experience. Consequently, such dependency focuses students too exclusively on the material or monetary rewards of an education for creativity and for satisfying some of the more basic drives for knowledge and experience.

Extrinsic Motivation
Behaviors carried out in anticipation of a reward from outside and beyond the self have extrinsic motivation. The intrinsic rewards can be money, prizes, grades and even certain types of positive feedback. The avoidance of punishment is also one kind of intrinsic motivation because this can build the students sense of competence and determination.

Which form of motivation is more powerful?
A convincing research strongly favors intrinsic drives, especially for long term retention. Abraham Maslow (1970) claimed that extrinsic motivation is clearly superior to extrinsic. People seek out the challenging situation, optimal incongruity what Krashen (1985) called “i + 1 “- presents enough of possibility of being resolved that resolution. Jerome Brumer (1962) claimed that one effective way to help children and adults to think and learn is to free them from the control of rewards and punishment. The weakness of extrinsic motivation is the presence of addictive nature. Once captivated by the lure of an immediate prize or praise the students become dependent on tangible rewards, even to the point that their withdrawal can extinguish the desire to learn.
Kohn (1990) gave example:
1. Subjects were asked to solve an intrinsically fascinating complex puzzle with no stated reward. Halfway through the process, the experimenter informed the students that there would be a monetary reward for solving the puzzle. From that point onward, intrinsic motivation (as measured by speed and correct steps toward a solution) waned.
2. Teenage girls were given the task of teaching some games to younger children. One group of “teachers” were simply given their task, the others were told that they would receive a reward(a free ticket to the movies) for successfully completing the teaching task. Results: The first group did their task faster, with more success, and reported greater pleasure in doing so than the second group.
Of course, intrinsic motivation is not the only determiner of success for a language learner. But if the learners in the classroom are given an opportunity to do language activities for their own personal reasons of achieving competence those learners will have a better change of success than if they become dependent on external rewards for their motivation.

Once again about motivation
Motivation is a really powerful factor in achieving language learning goals although it is not precisely known how motivation affects learning. It is not clear whether motivation improves the desire to learn or successful learning enhances motivation. Burstall (1975) has addressed just this issue and concluded that achievement affected later attitudes and later achievement to a greater extent than early attitudes than early attitudes affected either later achievement or later attitudes. In other words, it was the motivation that was engendered by the learning process itself that seemed to matter most. A similar view is taken by MacNamara (1973). He argues that the really important part of motivation lies in the act of communication itself rather than in any general orientation as implied by the integration or instrument distinction.
C. Why the writer emphasizes on motivation.
Many researchers show us that motivation directly influences the student’s behavior in learning foreign language and the students can determine themselves how to choose good strategies to learn and acquire English skills. That’s why giving motivation, with various ways, to the students is a ‘must’ to achieve the target language. No matter what strategies are chosen to arouse the student’s motivation. The most important thing is that the students can win both kinds of motivation, intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Without motivation it is extremely difficult for them to succeed in learning foreign language or the writer is brave to say it is impossible.

D. How to motivate the students.
Motivating the students can be done through many kinds of ways and all of you will agree that it is very complex. The motivation can come from the teacher, the students themselves or their environment. Gardner states: “ The source of the motivating impetus is relatively unimportant, provided that motivation is aroused” (1985b,p169). The following activities are examples of giving motivation to the students.

Do meaningful learning
Almost all of the students the writer teaches consider that English is the most difficult lesson they must study and they also think that English has no relation to their life. And some of them don’t want at all to know the language rules given by the teacher.
Knowing that the students have very low motivation, the teacher has obligation to find as many kinds of strategies as possible to arouse the students’ desire to learn. By conducting various ways to teach, the teacher is able to choose the best way motivating the students to learn and make the students learn without having to understand and memorize complicated language rules. In this case motivation is badly needed by L2 and FL learners.

Use authentic Materials And Media
To do this, he begins with an idea in a text and based on the understanding of students’ needs and interests, locate authentic materials, as well as create additional activities that make use of them. Here is as example of how the writer did this. While the students were participating in ‘a card’ activity. They expressed interest learning how to offer drink in a living room.
This condition is very suitable with what Dougles Brown advises us to avoid the pitfalls of rote learning:
a. Too much grammar explanation
b. Too many abstract principles and theories
c. Too much drilling and/or memo ration
d. Activities whose purposes are not clear
e. Activities that do not contribute to accomplishing the goals of the lesson, unit or course
f. Techniques that are so focus on the mechanics instead of on the language or meanings
In short, if the students have become intrinsically motivated to all classroom or outside classroom activities, teachers might not be needed anymore.
Develop students self confidence
The teacher should ask the students to do inside classroom activities or outside classroom activities by saying “ You can do it” repeatedly and he should start the students’ activities logically with simpler techniques and simpler concepts.
Asking the students to memorize difficult sentences and giving them complicated explanation should extremely be avoided. Just tell the students that ing-form and be, for example, are used if the time signal is “now” without writing the name of the tense and even the pattern of the tense.

Do interaction in classroom settings.
What is interaction?
Interaction is the collaborative exchange of thoughts, feelings, or ideas between two or more people resulting in a reciprocal affect on each other. Theories of communication competence emphasize the importance of interaction as human being use language in various contexts to “negotiate” meaning or simply stated, to get an idea out of one person’ head and into the head of another person and vice versa.

Help the students learn the natural way
This means that learning foreign language only in the classroom is not suitable anymore. The students must be in the real context to practice communication. But they should no force themselves to use the language. A young Israeli who stressed the importance of living the language explained:
“ I don’t think I have to use it. If it happens to me to use it, I use it. I don’t force myself to use a word, because if it is compulsive, it is not natural.
Help the students practice
The teacher should find strategies in order that the students use the language as often as possible. If someone practices he will learn “automatically”, “ get accustomed to speaking”, “ understand better’, and “ learn to think in English’.

Include a sociocultural component in the foreign language syllabus
Invite the students to watch films or TV recordings, play relevant music and invite interesting native speakers gusts.

Promote student contact with foreign language speakers in your country
If possible organizing school trips or exchange programs to the foreign language community; or finding pen friends for your students.

Encourage the students to set attainable sub goals for themselves that are proximal and specific.
Ideally, these sub goals can be integrated into a personalized learning plan to each student.

Make the syllabus of the course.
The syllabus must be relevant by basing it on needs analysis and involving the students in the actual planning of the course program.

What else should the teacher do?
Teachers play very important roles in the course of teaching- described in the form of metaphor: teacher as manufacturer, teacher as doctor, teacher as judge, teacher as gardener and others. And the following is another set of metaphors to describe the possibilities of teachers’ roles.
The teacher should make students group work. By grouping the students, the teachers can give the students more opportunities to speak, interaction happens. Douglas Brown describes the importance of interaction in the language classroom:

1. The teacher as Controller
A role that is sometimes expected in traditional educational institutions is that of “master” controller, always in charge of every moment in the classroom. Mater controller determine what the students do, when they should speak, and what language forms they should use. They can often predict many students’ responses because everything is mapped out ahead of time, with no leeway for divergent paths. In some respects, such control may sound admirable. But for interaction to take place, the teacher must create a climate in which spontaneity can thrive, in which unrehearsed language can be performed, and in which the freedom of expression given over to students makes it impossible to predict everything that they will say and do.
Nevertheless, some control on your part is actually an important element of successfully carrying out interactive techniques. In the planning phase especially, a wise controller will carefully project how a technique will proceed, map out the initial input to students, specify directions to be given, and gauge the timing of a technique. So granted that allowing for spontaneity of expression involves yielding certain elements of control to students, nevertheless, even in the most cooperative of interactive classrooms, the teacher must maintain some control simply to organize the class hour.
2. The Teacher as Director
Some interactive classroom time can legitimately be structured in such a way that the teacher is like a conductor of an orchestra or a director of a drama. As students engage in either rehearsed or spontaneous language performance, it is your job to keep the process flowing smoothly and efficiently. The ultimate motive of such direction, of course, must always be to enable students eventually to engage in the real life drama of improvisation as each communicative event brings its own uniqueness.

3. The Teacher as Manager
This metaphor captures your role as one who plans lessons, modules, and courses, and who structures the larger, longer segments of classroom time, but who then allows each individual player to be creative within those parameters. Managers of successful corporations, for example, retain control of certain larger objectives of the company, keep employees pointed toward goals, engage in ongoing evaluation and feedback, but give freedom to each person to work in his or her own individual areas of expertise. A language class should not be markedly different.

4. The Teacher as Facilitator
A less directive role might be described as facilitating the process of learning, of making learning easier for students: helping them to clear away roadblocks, to find shortcut, to negotiate rough terrain. The facilitating role requires that you step away from the managerial or directive role and allow students, with your guidance and gentle prodding, to find their own pathways to success. As facilitator capitalizes on the principle of intrinsic motivation by allowing students to discover language through using it pragmatically, rather than by telling them about language.

5. The Teacher as Resource
Here you take the least directive role. In fact, the implication of the resource role is that the student takes the initiative to come to you. You are available for advice and counsel when the student seeks it. It is of course not practical to push this metaphor to an extreme where you would simply walk into a classroom and say something like, ” Well, what do you want to learn today?” Some degree of control, of planning, of managing the classroom is essential. But there are appropriate times when you call literally take a back seat and allow the students to proceed with their own linguistic development.
In the lesson that you deliver, you should be able to assume all five of these roles on this continuum of directive to non directive teaching, depending on the purpose and context of an activity. The key to interactive teaching is to strive toward the upper, non directive end of the continuum, gradually enabling your students to move from their roles of total dependence to relatively total independence. The proficiency level of your class will determine to some extent which roles will dominate. But even at the lowest levels, some genuine interaction can take place, and your role must be one that releases your students to try things for themselves.

Conclusion
Teaching English is not just teaching, giving information, explaining the lesson as many as possible so that the students can get knowledge faster, giving exercises and just doing any activities in the classroom. Teachers should do more than just teaching, giving information, explaining the lesson, giving exercises and just doing any activities in the classroom. Motivation to learn must be administered to them in order that they determine their own way to learn and automatically have positive attitude to learn the language.

REFERENCES

Brown, H.D.(2001) Teaching by Principles. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Ellis, R (1994) The Study of Second Language Acquisition. Oxford University Press.
Gass, S.M, Slinker, L ( 1994) Second Language Acquisition. Michigan State University.
Ramage, K (1990) Motivational Factor and Persistence in Foreign Language Study. San Fransisco State University.
Gardner, R.C & Trmblay, P.F (1994). On Motivation, research agendas, and theoretical frameworks. Modern Language Journal.
Dornyei,Z( ) Motivation and Motivating in the Foreign Language Classroom. Department of English, Eotvos University.
Wenden, A & Rubin, J. Learnr Strategies in Language Learning. York College, City University of New York.

KIAMAT SUDAH DEKAT
SEBAGAI INDIKASI: GLOBAL WARMING
Oleh: Aminah Ahmad

Mendengar kata “kiamat” saja perasaan kita kan terasa ngeri apalagi diembel – embeli dengan kata “sudah dekat”. Secara harfiah kata kiamat berarti berakhir atau tamatnya segala sesuatu. Dipandang dari segi religi kiamat adalah berakhirnya segala kehidupan manusia dan semua organisme yang berada di dunia ini dan dibangkitkannya seluruh umat dari kemusnahan itu sendiri. Tapi mengapa kita harus ngeri demi mendengar kata itu?. Bagaimana perasaan kita tidak akan ngeri bila kiamat yang akan terjadi adalah “master piece” dari jerih payah kita sendiri?. Sebenarnya semua mahluk dan organisme yang berada di atas bumi ini memiliki “titik jenuh” masing – masing. Titik jenuh yang dimiliki oleh manusia merupakan manifestasi dari tingkat keserakahan yang timbul dari implikasi ketidak puasan manusia atas dirinya dan lingkungan sekelilingnya. Tak jarang titik jenuh yang seharusnya menjadi batas kemampuan manusia itu menjadi bumerang bagi dirinya dan lingkungannya, karena dari rasa ketidak puasan itu akan timbul eksploitasi manusia sehingga merubah segala sesuatu disekitarnya bahkan tidak hanya merubah tapi juga merusak segala sesuatu yang tertata menurut aturan sang penciptaNya. Salah kaparah manusia yang berpikir bahwa pada abad ini adalah kemajuan dari peradaban umat manusia, mereka tidak sadar bahwa sains yang selama ini mereka bangga – banggakan semakin lama dan pasti akan membuat bumi kita yang cantik ini semakin “mengempis” dan pada suatu saat nanti akan meledak seperti balon udara tanpa keseimbangan dan menghancurkan segala mahluk diatasnya.
Manusia sebagai mahluk sempurna dibekali dengan akal yang luar biasa hebatnya dapat membawa kehidupan dari jaman purba menjadi peradaban moderen. Dari sini pengkultusan manusia sebagai “khalifah”di bumi ini tak dapat disangkal lagi. Penguasaan manusia dalam berbagai bidang kehidupan seperti sains, sosial, ekonomi, dari mengorek isi perut bumi hingga “menempelkan” berbagai macam satelit di luar angkasa. Kehebatan manusia dibidang sains memang menyebakan kedudukan manusia semakin “diatas angin” sebagai penguasa bumi. Seperti pernyataan Marxisme yang mengatakan bahwa sains sebagai penyelamat kehidupan.
Kekuasaan manusia yang tidak dapat berpikir secara rasionalpun tak bisa dihindari lagi. Kekuasaan dan kehebatan manusia tidak lagi memikirkan dampak ekologis kehidupan. Ternyata tujuan sains dalam abad globalisasi ini sudah berada di jalur yang salah. Bertolak belakang dari nfakta itu, para ilmuwan tetap lantang menyatakan bahwa segala pekerjaanya dan penemuannya tetap bertujuan menyelamatkan umat manusia. Fakta lain mengatakan bahwa untuk melukuan sebuah riset untuk sains ,seseorang, sebuah perusahan, bahkan sebuah negara harus mengeluarkan dana yang cukup membuat mata kita terbelalak. Ironisnya, para ilmuwan tadi juga telah mengetahui bahwa proyek sains yang bertujuan menyelamatkan manusia tetap harus diperjual belikan. Seperti yang kita ketahui bahwa dewasa ini sains sepenuhnya telah dikuasai oleh militer dan sistem ekonomi kapitalis global. Bisnis tetap bisnis, nyatanya sains yang diagung – agungkan sebagai penyelamat dan peninggi peradaban manusia tetap dijual dan pada kahirnya membunuh kehidupan ekologis dimuka bumi ini.
Robert Musil, ilmuwan matematika yang berkutat dibidang sains dan dikenal sebagai bapak moyangnya matematika pada akhirnya melahirkan gas beracun dan pesawat tempur. Dari kenyataan ini dapat disimpulkan bahwa sains jugalah sebagai mesin pembunuh biosfer kehidupan manusia. Dari sainslah lahir sistem ekonomi global yang membahayakan manusia beserta kehidupannya. Fritjop Capara dalam penelitiannya mengatakan bahwa pengetahuan pengetahuan telah terjebak dalam rel yang salah dengan menempatkan ilmu fisika sebagai panutan. Menurutnya dunia sains sudah saatnya mengganti kiblat dari ilmu fisika yang berkecimpung dengan benda – benda mati – menuju ilmu biologi yang mempelajari benda – benda hidup. Karena secara hirarkis mahluk hidup memiliki kompleksitas lebih tinggi daripada benda- benda mati.
Manusia tidak sadar bahwa dengan kepandaiannya mereka telah mengumpulkan energi – energi untuk meng- “kiamatkan” dunia secara perlahan. Selaras dengan hal itu manusia sudah tidak ambil pusing lagi dengan global warming yang menimpa bumi beserta kehidupan ekologisnya. Oleh karena itu manusia merupakan pencipta sistem bentuk – bentuk baru demi keuntungan ekonomi domain tanpa harus memikirkan bahaya dari dampak – dampak yang dihasilkan. Akhirnya teori pasarlah yang berbicara, yang lemah bakal ditindas secara ekonomi. Sebagai fakta negara adikuasa macam Amerika Serikat beserta sekutu – sekutunya Inggris, Australia, Israel selalu diributkan dengan berbagai macam “trik” untuk menguasai sumber daya alam di negara lemah dan harus membunuh ribuan juta manusia. Indonesia yang turut “take a part” terhadap incasi mereka harus rela menjual sumber daya lam yang dimilikinya dan binatang – binatang langka bahkan manusia – manusia yang dimilikinya. Data World Bank tahun 2006 mengemukakan angka kemiskinan di Indonesia mencapai 37 – 39 juta jiwa dan jumlah pengangguran 10 – 12 juta jiwa diantara 100 juta angkatan kerja jiwa. Fakta kedua mengacu kepada Amerika yang sekenanya memacu negara – negara kecil seperti Indonesia dan sebagian negara kecil di Asia untuk menggembar – gemborkan slogan “Awas Global Warming”, sememtara Amerika sendirilah sebagai otak utama pelaku globla warming yang terjadi saat ini.
Keadaan bumi kian terpuruk, namun sejalan dengan itu eksploitasi alam semakin “gila – gilaan” meskipun setumpuk peraturan lingkungan hidup terbaru muncul dalam masyarakat internasional dengan slogan – slogan produk ramah lingkungan dan perjuangan organisasi pecinta lingkungan sedunia. Namun deforestasi hutan, kepunahan satwa liar, kebakaran hutan dalam jutaan tahun tak pernah juga berhenti. Pada bulan Juli di tahun 2000, para ilmuwan mencapai Kutub Utara diatas kapal pemecah es Rusia Yamal telah berhadapan dengan suatu pemandangan yang mengerikan yakni suatu permukann air terbuka luas selebar 1 mil sebagai pengganti es tebal yang telah berabad –abad menutupi Samudera Artik (New York Times:19/08/2000). Dari sini dapat diambil sebuah pertanyaan Apakah sains yang begitu didewa – dewakan dan sistem ekonomi yang bersifat kapitalis global dapat memberikan solusi jitu untuk mengatur iklim global uang terkendali? Membuat terumbu karang dibawah lautan? Membuat lapisan ozone buatan yang dapat melindungi seluruh umat manusia dari pemanasan global dan semakin dekatnya kiamat?
Secara tidak sadar namun berkesinambungan oleh para manusia – manusia yang tidak pernah berpikiran rasional telah menciptakan sesuatu yang sungguh maha mengerikan. Dalam sifat coba – cobanya manusia telah bermain – main dengan masa depannya juga masa depan mahluk lain. Dalam mencari kepuasan yang membabi buta manusia itu sendiri telah memprogram kehancurannya sendiri dengan keganasan yang sama kejamnya dengan cara membunuh spesies lain, coba kita perhatikan beberapa fakta dibawah ini:
• Beberapa tahun belakangan ini, musim hujan dan kering berlangsung lebih lama. Curah hujan yang tinggi menyebabkan banjir, pecahnya gletser juga menjadi penyebab banjir. Menurut para ahli, pada tahun 2020 kekeringan akan melanda Afrika, Eropa, Amerika Utara dan Australia.
• Kelompok ahli dalam global warming menyatakan bahwa 100 tahun terakhir telah terjadi peningkatan permukaan air laut setinggi 10 – 25 cm bahkan pada akhir tahun 2100 air laut diperkirakan akan naik 15 – 95 cm. dalam perhitungan secara matematis kalau air laut naik 1 m, maka akan meyebabkan hilangnya 1% daratan Mesir, 6% Belanda dan 17,5% Bangladesh. Selain itu negara – negara kepulauan seperti Indonesia, Jepang, Filipina akan tenggelam!
• Sejak tahun 1960, lapisan es yang meneyelimuti bumi telah berkurang 10% bahkan dalam 40 tahun terakhir ini ketebalan es di Kutub Utara telah berkurang 42%. Diperkirakan pada tahun 2100, gletser yang menyelimuti pegunungan Himalaya (luasnya 33.000 km2) akan mencair serta pada tahun 2015 diperhitungkan bahwa seluruh salju di Gunung Kalimanjaro akan mencair.
• Suhu udara di Indonesia sudah meningkat 0,3 derajat selcius sejak tahun 1990. pada tahun 1998 mencapai titik tertinggi yaitu 1 derajat celcius diatas rata – rata tahun 1961 – 1990. menurut para ahli, suhu bakal naik lagi sehingga 3 – 4 derajat celcius.
• Spesies hutan dan laut akan punah. Indonesia memiliki 14.000 unit terumbu karang dengan luas 85.700 km2 atau sekitar 14% dari terumbu karang dunia. Kalau terumbu karang ini punah, ikan – ikan yang langkapun akan punah.

Dari beberapa fakta diatas dapat kita ambil kesimpulan bahwa global warming adalah sebuah akses dari segala “main-main” manusia menuju kepunahan spesies manusia dan organisme lainnya. Kiamat yang telah diciptakan dengan alat secanggih apapun ataupun dengan berbagai macam teori konspirasi atau bahakan dengan terobosan – terobosan nuklir yang dielu – elukan. Banyaknya manusia yang mulai terjaga dari mimpinya “aku menjadi penguasa bumi” tidak akan memberikan kontribusi yang bermanfaat bagi keselamatan dunia. Adanaya revolusi secara radikal yang mulai berpikir betapa pentingnya suatu kelangsungan mahluk hidup beserta ekosistemnya juga takkan mampu memberikan titik cerah penyelesaian masalah global warming. Namun sebagai mahluk beragama kita tak boleh bersikat pesimis. Banyak kita lihat negara – negara yang mulai “menggeliat” bangun dengan memberikan pendidikan dan penyuluhan tentang global warming serta kondisi bumi saat ini pada masyarakat. Dunia internasional (Amerika, Eropa, Auatralia juga Asia) mulai membuka mata akan pentingnya kelestarian bumi bagi anak cucu mereka dimasa depan. Tapi semua itu akan terasa sia – sia bila semua program – program global warming beserta dampaknya tak disosialisakian dengan tepat pada masyarakat awam khususnya di Indonesia. Dan pada khirnya nanti semua kehidupan manusia dan organisme lainnya akan mengalami proses gravitasi bahwa semua benda jatuh kebawah, namun dewasa ini benda jatuh kembali keasalnya bukan jatuh kebawah!

PENTINGNYA SEORANG GURU BELAJAR PENGETAHUAN DEKLARATIF DAN PENGETAHUAN PROSEDURAL

OLEH : Khazin,SPd

Abstrak

Dalam teori teori pendidikan pengetahuan deklaratif dan pengetahuan procedural didapatkan dengan cara yang berbeda beda. Pemerolehahan pengetahuan deklaratif terjadi bila penegetahuan baru menstimulasi aktivasi pengetahuan lama yang relevan. Pengetahuan baru dan pengetahuan lama yang relevan tersimpan dalam jaringan proposisi. Pemanggilan pengetahuan deklaratif terjadi bila suatu perangsang mengaktifkan suatu daerah tertentu dalam jaringan proposisi dan aktivasi ini kemudian menyebar ke daerah daerah yang berhubungan , sehingga informasi yang diinginkan teraktivasi. Konstruksi pengetahuan terjadi, bila suatu fakta tertentu tidak dapat dipanggil, pengetahuan yang teraktivasi digunakan untuk menyimpulkan informasi yang diinginkan. Pengetahuan procedural merupakan pengetahuan yang tidak perlu dicari dalam memori jangka panjang. Pada kenyataannya tidak semua pengajar faham tentang perbedaan pengetahuan deklaratif dan pengetahuan procedural. Sehingga mereka salah faham menyajikan pengajaran atau materi pelajaran. Dengan demikian tulisan ini diharapkan para pengajar faham bagaimana proses belajar pengetahuan deklaratif dan pengetahuan procedural yang terjadi pada diri orang yang sedang belajar, bagaimana kedua pengetahuan itu diperoleh dan bagaimana instruksi oleh pengajar seharusnya dilakukan.
Keywords : Pengetahuan deklaratif, aktivasi, pengetahuan procedural, proposisi, elaborasi, prosedur.

Perolehan Pengetahuan Deklaratif
Tingkat tingkat aktivitas dalam jaringan proposisi
Anderson (1983) berpendapat bahwa proposisi proposisi mempunyai berbagai tingkatan aktivitas. Pada suatu waktu sebagian besar proposisi itu tidak aktif. Sebagian kecil proposisi yang aktif pada waktu waktu tertentu adalah bagian yang pada waktu itu kita pikirkan. Proposisi proposisi itu ialah pengetahuan lama, bukan pengetahuan baru.
Prinsip Prinsip Pemerolehan pengetahuan deklaratif
Pengetahuan deklaratif baru diperoleh bila suatu proposisi baru disimpan bersama proposisi proposisi yang berhubungan dalam jaringan proposisi.
Langkah langkah perolehan pengetahuan deklaratif baru: (a) Pengetahuan baru disajikan. (b) Pengetahuan itu diubah menjadi proposisi proposisi. (c) Proposisi proposisi yang berhubungan dalam memori jangka panjang aktif. Di sisi akan terjadi hubungan antara pengetahuan baru dan pengetahuan lama atau bahwa makna terkandung dalam hubungan hubungan antara bagian bagian struktur pengetahuan apakah itu menyangkut hubungan hubungan antara proposisi dan proposisi atau hubungan hubungan antara prosedur dan proposisi.
Elaborasi Pengetahuan Deklaratif
Elaborasi ialah proses penambahan penambahan pengetahuan yang berhubungan pada informasi yang sedang dipelajari. Elaborasi memperlancar pemanggilan dengan dua cara: Petama, ia menyediakan alternative cara cara untuk pemanggilan agar aktivasi menyebar. Jadi, kalau satu cara menemukan jalan buntu, cara lain masih ada. Kedua, ia menyediakan informasi tambahan yang dapat berguna untuk mengkunstruksi jawaban.
Organisasi pengetahuan Deklaratif
Organisasi ialah proses pembagian himpunan informasi menjadi sub sub himpunan dan penentuan hubungan antara sub sub himpunan itu. Organisasi sangat menolong pengingatan informasi. Apakah informasi itu berupa daftar berisi kata kata benda, cerita cerita, text pelajaran dll. Salah satu kerjanya adalah dengan menyediakan yang hubungan yang ketat dengan informasi yang akan dihafal, sehingga penyebaran aktivasi akan tinggal dalam daerah yang relevan dari memri jangka panjang dan tidak menjauh.
Pertolongan elaborasi dan organisasi dalam pengajaran
Beberapa prosedur yang dapat digunakan oleh para guru untuk merangsang elaborasi antara lain ialah meminta siswa untuk membentuk gambar gambar mental, menggunakan analogi analogi untuk materi pelajaran yang tidak dikenal siswa dan demikian abstrak, sehingga tidak dapat menimbulkan gambaran gambaran mental, atau dengan minta para siswa untuk membentuk elaborasi elaborasi. Untuk merangsang organisasi, guru dapat memberikan sesuatu daftar yang berisi garis garis besar pelajaran. Prosedur prosedur lain yang dapat memperlancar elaborasi dan organisasi adalah meminta para siswa untuk memberikan contoh contoh dari konsep konsep baru, meminta mereka untuk melengkapi suatu outlines, atau menggunakan kata kata untuk merangsang organisasi. Daftar prosedur prosedur dan pertanyaan pertanyaan yang merangsan proses belajar deklaratif tentu tergantung pada imajinasipara guru atau perencana pembelajaran.
Belajar Pengetahuan Prosedural
Prosedur prosedur pengenalan pola dan urutan aksi
Ada dua bentuk prosedur yang penting untuk diketahui karena perbedaannya dalam proses belajar. Pertama, pengenalan pola, prosedur ini mendasari kemampuan untuk mengenal dan mengklasifikasikan pola pola stimulus internal dan eksternal. Kedua, urutan aksi. Prosedue ini mendasari kemampuan untuk melakukan urutan urutan operasi operasi terhadap simbul simbul.
Hubungan antara prosedur prosedur pengenalan pola dan prosedur prosedur urutan aksi mirip dengan hubungan konsep konsep dan aturan aturan dalam teori belajar R.M. Gagne (1977).
Perolehan prosedur prosedur pengenalan pola
Proses proses yang terlibat dalam perolehan prosedur prosedur pengenalan pola adalah generalisasi dan diskriminasi. Generalisasi meningkatkan daerah situasi situasi untuk penerapan suatu prosedur, sedangkan diskriminasi mengurangi atau mempersempit daerah ini. Dalam generalisasi seleksi dan urutan dari contoh contoh merupakan hal yang sangat penting untuk meninbgkatkan kemungkinan bahwa seorang siswa membentuk produksi pengenalan pola yang benar. Dalam diskriminasi yang penting ialah seleksi dan urutan dari noncontoh noncontoh. Suatu noncontoh merupakan suatu missal yang bukan suatu contoh dari konsep yang sedang dipelajari. Jadi, suatu nsegiempat merupakan noncontoh dari konsep segitiga.
Perolehan prosedur prosedur urutan aksi
Menurut teori Anderson urutan urutan aksi dipelajari dengan cara sebagai berikut. Mula mula sipelajar menyajikan suatu urutan aksi aksi dalam bentuk deklaratif, lalu berkembang suatu penyajian procedural dari urutan aksi dengan pengalaman dalam mencoba menghasilkan urutan aksi. Suatu contoh dari proses ini adalah belajar menjalankan mobil ( yang tidak otomatis). Pada permulaan kita membimbing diri kita sendiri secara verbal dengan mengucapkan atau memikirkan setiap langkah, lalu melaksanakan langkah itu. Lalu, setelah berkali kali mencoba menjalankan mobil kita bisa menjalankan mobil dengan lancer dan tanpa sadar akan perangsangan dari pengetahuan deklaratif. Proses perubahan ini disebut kompilasi pengetahuan.
Strategi mengajarkan pengetahuan procedural
Walaupun strategi mengajar untuk generalisasi, diskriminasi, dan proseduralisasi pada umumnya ada perbedaannya, ada pula strategi yang dapat digunakan untuk setiap macam pengetahuan procedural. Strategi ini ialah latihan yang diikuti dengan umpan balik. Apabila prosedur itu merupakan pengenalan pola maka kesempatan untuk mengklsifikasi contoh contoh baru dari pola hendaknya diberikan. Umpan balik tidak hanya memperlihatkan apakah yang dilakukan itu betul, tetapi juga, bila jawabannya tidak betul, harus ditunnjukkan mana dari jawaban itu yang tidak betul. Atau secara tepat bagaimana cepatnya suatu prosedur yang betul diterapkan.
Kesimpulan
Proses proses belajar yang berhubungan dengan pengetahuan procedural tergantung pada latihan dan umpan balik. Jadi, tidak aneh bahwa untuk mengembangkan keahlian dalam penampilan intelektual apapun juga, apakah itu membaca, main catur, menulis, atau fisika makan waktu yang lama. Kita membutuhkan banyak kesempatan untuk latihan prosedur prosedur, sebab hanya melaui latihan dapat dikembangkan prosedur prosedur.

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s

%d bloggers like this: