This is for the students of STKIP studying in Probolinggo

Each student must have the copy of this text!

Read the following text carefully and then do all the exercises which are all based on the text. Write the answers in the comment.


Teachers and parents may well feel confused these days over the great variety of opinion which obtain on the subject of education. Indeed there is such a contrariety of even expert advice that it seems as if they learned talk in a Babel of voices when they give directions on rearing the young. Distressing as this situation may be, it is not unusual. Quite the opposite: the situation seems to be one of long standing.
Aristotle and his contemporaries found it difficult to agree on a fitting sort of education for the young because contemporary social conditions were in a state of accelerated change. Political institutions had shifted from aristocratic to democratic forms. A commercial economy had rapidly lifted Greece to a position of leadership in the eastern Mediterranean. National preeminence brought in its wake international conflict and ultimately international war. Foreign trade and war, to say nothing of domestic political strife, gave rise to a whole new crop of ideas among the Greeks. In the field of education the fundamental question arose whether the traditional educational stereotype would longer fit the new world into which the Greeks were moving or whether new times demanded a revision of their educational ideal.
The situation in the twentieth century -not to mention intervening centuries – has been market by similar and even more drastic changes. The political structure has been very fluid. Monarchistic institutions have given way to democratic, and democratic institutions in turn have been beset by fascistic and communistic ones. Industrial economics have rapidly outstripped agrarian and commercial ones. International war not once but twice has tested men’s political and economic ideologies. Reinforced by the remarkable development of science, the intellectual turnover of ideas has never been so greet. Consequently people today, as twenty-five hundred years ago, are rising the ago-old questions about how to educate their children for the dynamic social conditions in which they live. If their answers are confused and faltering, there should be no occasion for surprise: uncertain times give rise to uncertain answers.
Decide whether these statements are true or not.
1. T – F Teachers may be perplexed with the subject of education.
2. T– F Expert advice given the learned on the rearing the young is various.
3. T– F Social conditions change because Aristotle and his contemporaries found it difficult to agree on how to educate the young.
4. T– F Democratic forms of political institutions are older than aristocratic ones.
5. T– F Greece had been rapidly lifted by a commercial economy to a position of leadership in the eastern Mediterranean.
6. T– F A whole new crop of ideas among the Greeks gave rise to foreign trade and war.
7. T– F The political structure in the twentieth century has been very indefinite.
8. T– F Agrarian and commercial economies have been replaced by industrial ones.
9. T– F The rate of intellectual renewal of ideas has been strengthened by the remarkable of science.
10. T– F The questions about how to rear the young did not exist twenty five years ago.


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