Writing

For The students of STKIP Pasuruan

Before writing an article read the following….

WRITING COMPOSITIONS
Whatever you choose to write for a composition, you usually follow the same basic structure:
Introduction
Body
Conclusion
Begin a composition with an introduction which is the first paragraph. This paragraph begins with a specific sentence called the thesis statement. What you intend to convey in your composition is contained in this statement. It introduces the main idea of what your entire composition will be discussing. Ensure your thesis statement is a specific statement and is focused on a single idea rather than several.
The opening paragraph should be designed to capture the interest of your reader. It focuses on your assertion, on what you are going to write about.
The body is a group of paragraphs that develop on the main idea as introduced in the thesis statement. The main idea must now be elaborated with each developmental paragraph discussing a supporting point for the main idea. Each paragraph argues, describes, explains, discusses, defines, clarifies, illustrates or whatever on the thesis statement.
Each body paragraph has the same basic structure. It has a topic sentence followed by four or five supporting sentences. One idea is discussed in each paragraph. Introduce supporting details, facts, examples, quotations for each of these ideas. A concluding sentence summarizing or restating the idea ends each paragraph.
The conclusion is a summary paragraph. You complete the composition by summarizing, reviewing or restating the main idea in different words or briefly stating your opinion, feelings or suggesting a solution. Ensure the concluding paragraph is not too long; three or four sentences will be enough.
Your composition should leave the reader satisfied.

Now write about Water

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ENGLISH FOR EDUCATION

This is for the students of STKIP studying in Probolinggo

Each student must have the copy of this text!

Read the following text carefully and then do all the exercises which are all based on the text. Write the answers in the comment.

THE SCHOOL AND THE SOCIAL CHANCE

Teachers and parents may well feel confused these days over the great variety of opinion which obtain on the subject of education. Indeed there is such a contrariety of even expert advice that it seems as if they learned talk in a Babel of voices when they give directions on rearing the young. Distressing as this situation may be, it is not unusual. Quite the opposite: the situation seems to be one of long standing.
Aristotle and his contemporaries found it difficult to agree on a fitting sort of education for the young because contemporary social conditions were in a state of accelerated change. Political institutions had shifted from aristocratic to democratic forms. A commercial economy had rapidly lifted Greece to a position of leadership in the eastern Mediterranean. National preeminence brought in its wake international conflict and ultimately international war. Foreign trade and war, to say nothing of domestic political strife, gave rise to a whole new crop of ideas among the Greeks. In the field of education the fundamental question arose whether the traditional educational stereotype would longer fit the new world into which the Greeks were moving or whether new times demanded a revision of their educational ideal.
The situation in the twentieth century -not to mention intervening centuries – has been market by similar and even more drastic changes. The political structure has been very fluid. Monarchistic institutions have given way to democratic, and democratic institutions in turn have been beset by fascistic and communistic ones. Industrial economics have rapidly outstripped agrarian and commercial ones. International war not once but twice has tested men’s political and economic ideologies. Reinforced by the remarkable development of science, the intellectual turnover of ideas has never been so greet. Consequently people today, as twenty-five hundred years ago, are rising the ago-old questions about how to educate their children for the dynamic social conditions in which they live. If their answers are confused and faltering, there should be no occasion for surprise: uncertain times give rise to uncertain answers.
Decide whether these statements are true or not.
1. T – F Teachers may be perplexed with the subject of education.
2. T– F Expert advice given the learned on the rearing the young is various.
3. T– F Social conditions change because Aristotle and his contemporaries found it difficult to agree on how to educate the young.
4. T– F Democratic forms of political institutions are older than aristocratic ones.
5. T– F Greece had been rapidly lifted by a commercial economy to a position of leadership in the eastern Mediterranean.
6. T– F A whole new crop of ideas among the Greeks gave rise to foreign trade and war.
7. T– F The political structure in the twentieth century has been very indefinite.
8. T– F Agrarian and commercial economies have been replaced by industrial ones.
9. T– F The rate of intellectual renewal of ideas has been strengthened by the remarkable of science.
10. T– F The questions about how to rear the young did not exist twenty five years ago.

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Apa tuhan itu ada? Apa buktinya?

Bukti Tuhan itu Ada

Beriman bahwa Tuhan itu ada adalah iman yang paling utama. Jika seseorang sudah tidak percaya bahwa Tuhan itu ada, maka sesungguhnya orang itu dalam kesesatan yang nyata.

Benarkah Tuhan itu ada? Kita tidak pernah melihat Tuhan. Kita juga tidak pernah bercakap-cakap dengan Tuhan. Karena itu, tidak heran jika orang-orang atheist menganggap Tuhan itu tidak ada. Cuma khayalan orang belaka.

Ada kisah zaman dulu tentang orang atheist yang tidak percaya dengan Tuhan. Dia mengajak berdebat seorang alim mengenai ada atau tidak adanya Tuhan. Di antara pertanyaannya adalah: “Benarkah Tuhan itu ada” dan “Jika ada, di manakah Tuhan itu?”

Ketika orang atheist itu menunggu bersama para penduduk di kampung tersebut, orang alim itu belum juga datang. Ketika orang atheist dan para penduduk berpikir bahwa orang alim itu tidak akan datang, barulah muncul orang alim tersebut.

“Maaf jika kalian menunggu lama. Karena hujan turun deras, maka sungai menjadi banjir, sehingga jembatannya hanyut dan saya tak bisa menyeberang. Alhamdulillah tiba-tiba ada sebatang pohon yang tumbang. Kemudian, pohon tersebut terpotong-potong ranting dan dahannya dengan sendirinya, sehingga jadi satu batang yang lurus, hingga akhirnya menjadi perahu. Setelah itu, baru saya bisa menyeberangi sungai dengan perahu tersebut.” Begitu orang alim itu berkata.

Si Atheist dan juga para penduduk kampung tertawa terbahak-bahak. Dia berkata kepada orang banyak, “Orang alim ini sudah gila rupanya. Masak pohon bisa jadi perahu dengan sendirinya. Mana bisa perahu jadi dengan sendirinya tanpa ada yang membuatnya!” Orang banyak pun tertawa riuh.

Setelah tawa agak reda, orang alim pun berkata, “Jika kalian percaya bahwa perahu tak mungkin ada tanpa ada pembuatnya, kenapa kalian percaya bahwa bumi, langit, dan seisinya bisa ada tanpa penciptanya? Mana yang lebih sulit, membuat perahu, atau menciptakan bumi, langit, dan seisinya ini?”

Mendengar perkataan orang alim tersebut, akhirnya mereka sadar bahwa mereka telah terjebak oleh pernyataan mereka sendiri.

“Kalau begitu, jawab pertanyaanku yang kedua,” kata si Atheist. “Jika Tuhan itu ada, mengapa dia tidak kelihatan. Di mana Tuhan itu berada?” Orang atheist itu berpendapat, karena dia tidak pernah melihat Tuhan, maka Tuhan itu tidak ada.

Orang alim itu kemudian menampar pipi si atheist dengan keras, sehingga si atheist merasa kesakitan.

“Kenapa anda memukul saya? Sakit sekali.” Begitu si Atheist mengaduh.

Si Alim bertanya, “Ah mana ada sakit. Saya tidak melihat sakit. Di mana sakitnya?”

“Ini sakitnya di sini,” si Atheist menunjuk-nunjuk pipinya.

“Tidak, saya tidak melihat sakit. Apakah para hadirin melihat sakitnya?” Si Alim bertanya ke orang banyak.

Orang banyak berkata, “Tidak!”

“Nah, meski kita tidak bisa melihat sakit, bukan berarti sakit itu tidak ada. Begitu juga Tuhan. Karena kita tidak bisa melihat Tuhan, bukan berarti Tuhan itu tidak ada. Tuhan ada. Meski kita tidak bisa melihatNya, tapi kita bisa merasakan ciptaannya.” Demikian si Alim berkata.

Sederhana memang pembuktian orang alim tersebut. Tapi pernyataan bahwa Tuhan itu tidak ada hanya karena panca indera manusia tidak bisa mengetahui keberadaan Tuhan adalah pernyataan yang keliru.

Berapa banyak benda yang tidak bisa dilihat atau didengar manusia, tapi pada kenyataannya benda itu ada?

Betapa banyak benda langit yang jaraknya milyaran, bahkan mungkin trilyunan cahaya yang tidak pernah dilihat manusia, tapi benda itu sebenarnya ada?

Berapa banyak zakat berukuran molekul, bahkan nukleus (rambut dibelah 1 juta), sehingga manusia tak bisa melihatnya, ternyata benda itu ada? (manusia baru bisa melihatnya jika meletakan benda tersebut ke bawah mikroskop yang amat kuat).

Berapa banyak gelombang (entah radio, elektromagnetik. Listrik, dan lain-lain) yang tak bisa dilihat, tapi ternyata hal itu ada.

Benda itu ada, tapi panca indera manusia lah yang terbatas, sehingga tidak mengetahui keberadaannya.

Kemampuan manusia untuk melihat warna hanya terbatas pada beberapa frekuensi tertentu, demikian pula suara. Terkadang sinar yang amat menyilaukan bukan saja tak dapat dilihat, tapi dapat membutakan manusia. Demikian pula suara dengan frekuensi dan kekerasan tertentu selain ada yang tak bisa didengar juga ada yang mampu menghancurkan pendengaran manusia. Jika untuk mengetahui keberadaan ciptaan Allah saja manusia sudah mengalami kesulitan, apalagi untuk mengetahui keberadaan Sang Maha Pencipta!

Memang sulit membuktikan bahwa Tuhan itu ada. Tapi jika kita melihat pesawat terbang, mobil, TV, dan lain-lain, sangat tidak masuk akal jika kita berkata semua itu terjadi dengan sendirinya. Pasti ada pembuatnya.

Jika benda-benda yang sederhana seperti korek api saja ada pembuatnya, apalagi dunia yang jauh lebih kompleks.

Bumi yang sekarang didiami oleh sekitar 8 milyar manusia, keliling lingkarannya sekitar 40 ribu kilometer panjangnya. Matahari, keliling lingkarannya sekitar 4,3 juta kilometer panjangnya. Matahari, dan 9 planetnya yang tergabung dalam Sistem Tata Surya, tergabung dalam galaksi Bima Sakti yang panjangnya sekitar 100 ribu tahun cahaya (kecepatan cahaya=300 ribu kilometer/detik!) bersama sekitar 100 milyar bintang lainnya. Galaksi Bima Sakti, hanyalah 1 galaksi di antara ribuan galaksi lainnya yang tergabung dalam 1 “Cluster”. Cluster ini bersama ribuan Cluster lainnya membentuk 1 Super Cluster. Sementara ribuan Super Cluster ini akhirnya membentuk “Jagad Raya” (Universe) yang bentangannya sejauh 30 Milyar Tahun Cahaya! Harap diingat, angka 30 Milyar Tahun Cahaya baru angka estimasi saat ini, karena jarak pandang teleskop tercanggih baru sampai 15 Milyar Tahun Cahaya.

Bayangkan, jika jarak bumi dengan matahari yang 150 juta kilometer ditempuh oleh cahaya hanya dalam 8 menit, maka seluruh Jagad Raya baru bisa ditempuh selama 30 milyar tahun cahaya. Itulah kebesaran ciptaan Allah! Jika kita yakin akan kebesaran ciptaan Tuhan, maka hendaknya kita lebih meyakini lagi kebesaran penciptanya.

Dalam Al Qur’an, Allah menjelaskan bahwa Dialah yang menciptakan langit, bintang, matahari, bulan, dan lain-lain:

“Maha Suci Allah yang menjadikan di langit gugusan-gugusan bintang dan Dia menjadikan juga padanya matahari dan bulan yang bercahaya.” [Al Furqoon:61]

Ada jutaan orang yang mengatur lalu lintas jalan raya, laut, dan udara. Mercusuar sebagai penunjuk arah di bangun, demikian pula lampu merah dan radar. Menara kontrol bandara mengatur lalu lintas laut dan udara. Sementara tiap kendaraan ada pengemudinya. Bahkan untuk pesawat terbang ada Pilot dan Co-pilot, sementara di kapal laut ada Kapten, juru mudi, dan lain-lain. Toh, ribuan kecelakaan selalu terjadi di darat, laut, dan udara. Meski ada yang mengatur, tetap terjadi kecelakaan lalu lintas.

Sebaliknya, bumi, matahari, bulan, bintang, dan lain-lain selalu beredar selama milyaran tahun lebih (umur bumi diperkirakan sekitar 4,5 milyar tahun) tanpa ada tabrakan. Selama milyaran tahun, tidak pernah bumi menabrak bulan, atau bulan menabrak matahari. Padahal tidak ada rambu-rambu jalan, polisi, atau pun pilot yang mengendarai. Tanpa ada Tuhan yang Maha Mengatur, tidak mungkin semua itu terjadi. Semua itu terjadi karena adanya Tuhan yang Maha Pengatur. Allah yang telah menetapkan tempat-tempat perjalanan (orbit) bagi masing-masing benda tersebut. Jika kita sungguh-sungguh memikirkan hal ini, tentu kita yakin bahwa Tuhan itu ada.

“Dia-lah yang menjadikan matahari bersinar dan bulan bercahaya dan ditetapkan-Nya manzilah-manzilah (tempat-tempat) bagi perjalanan bulan itu, supaya kamu mengetahui bilangan tahun dan perhitungan (waktu). Allah tidak menciptakan yang demikian itu melainkan dengan hak. Dia menjelaskan tanda-tanda (kebesaran-Nya) kepada orang-orang yang mengetahui.” [Yunus:5]

“Tidaklah mungkin bagi matahari mendapatkan bulan dan malampun tidak dapat mendahului siang. Dan masing-masing beredar pada garis edarnya.” [Yaa Siin:40]

Sungguhnya orang-orang yang memikirkan alam, insya Allah akan yakin bahwa Tuhan itu ada:

“Allah-lah Yang meninggikan langit tanpa tiang (sebagaimana) yang kamu lihat, kemudian Dia bersemayam di atas `Arsy, dan menundukkan matahari dan bulan. Masing-masing beredar hingga waktu yang ditentukan. Allah mengatur urusan (makhluk-Nya), menjelaskan tanda-tanda (kebesaran-Nya), supaya kamu meyakini pertemuan (mu) dengan Tuhanmu.” [Ar Ra’d:2]

“(yaitu) orang-orang yang mengingat Allah sambil berdiri atau duduk atau dalam keadaan berbaring dan mereka memikirkan tentang penciptaan langit dan bumi (seraya berkata): “Ya Tuhan kami, tiadalah Engkau menciptakan ini dengan sia-sia. Maha Suci Engkau, maka peliharalah kami dari siksa neraka.” [Ali Imron:191]

Terhadap manusia-manusia yang sombong dan tidak mengakui adanya Tuhan, Allah menanyakan kepada mereka tentang makhluk ciptaannya. Manusiakah yang menciptakan, atau Tuhan yang Maha Pencipta:

“Maka terangkanlah kepadaku tentang nutfah yang kamu pancarkan. Kamukah yang menciptakannya, atau Kamikah yang menciptakannya?” [Al Waaqi’ah:58-59]

“Maka terangkanlah kepadaku tentang yang kamu tanam? Kamukah yang menumbuhkannya ataukah Kami yang menumbuhkannya?” [Al Waaqi’ah:63-64]

“Kamukah yang menjadikan kayu itu atau Kamikah yang menjadikannya?” [Al Waaqi’ah:72]

Di ayat lain, bahkan Allah menantang pihak lain untuk menciptakan lalat jika mereka mampu. Manusia mungkin bisa membuat robot dari bahan-bahan yang sudah diciptakan oleh Allah. Tapi untuk menciptakan seekor lalat dari tiada menjadi ada serta makhluk yang bisa bereproduksi (beranak-pinak), tak ada satu pun yang bisa menciptakannya kecuali Allah:

“…Sesungguhnya segala yang kamu seru selain Allah sekali-kali tidak dapat menciptakan seekor lalatpun, walaupun mereka bersatu untuk menciptakannya. Dan jika lalat itu merampas sesuatu dari mereka, tiadalah mereka dapat merebutnya kembali dari lalat itu. Amat lemahlah yang menyembah dan amat lemah (pulalah) yang disembah.” [Al Hajj:73]

Sesungguhnya, masih banyak ayat-ayat Al Qur’an lainnya yang menjelaskan bahwa sesungguhnya, Tuhan itu ada, dan Dia lah yang Maha Pencipta.

Silahkan baca juga

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Conditional Sentences 4 stkip Pasuruan n Probolinggo

Conditional Sentences
A. Conditional sentences: type 1

Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tenses.
1. If I see him I (give) him a lift.
2. The table will collapse if you (stand) on it.
3. If he (eat) all that he will be ill.
4. If I find your passport I (telephone) you at once.
5. The police (arrest) him if they catch him.
6. If he (read) in bad light he will ruin his eyes.
7. Someone (steal) your car if you leave it unlocked.
8. What will happen if my parachute (not open)?
9. If he (wash) my car I’ll give him L10
10. If she (need) a radio she can borrow mine.

B. Conditional sentences : type 2

Put the verbs in brackets into correct tenses.
1. If I had a typewriter I (type) it myself.
2. If I (know) his address I’d give it to you.
3. He (look) a lot better if he shaved more often.
4. If you (play) for lower stakes you wouldn’t lose so much.
5. If he worked more solely he (not make) so many mistakes.
6. I shouldn’t drink that wine if I (be) you.
7. More tourists would come to this country if it (have) a better climate.
8. If I were sent to prison you (visit) me?
9. If someone (give) you a helicopter what would you do with it?
10. I (buy) shares in that company if I had some money.

C. Conditional sentences: type 3

Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tenses.
1. If I had know that you were in hospital I (visit) you.
2. The ground was very soft. But for that, my horse (win).
3. If you (arrive) ten minutes earlier you would have got a seat.
4. You would have seen my garden at its best if you (be) here last week.
5. But for his quickness I (be) killed.
6. I shouldn’t have believed it if I (not see) it with my own eyes.
7. If he had slipped he (fall) 500 meters.
8. If he had asked you, you (accept)?
9. If I (had) a map I would have been all right.
10. If I (know) that you were coming I’d have baked a cake.

D. Conditional sentences: mixed types

Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tenses.
1. If you (find) a skeleton in the cellar don’t mention it to anyone.
2. If you pass your examination we (have) a celebration.
3. What (happen) if I press this button?
4. I should have voted for her if I (have) a vote then.
5. If you go to Paris where you (stay)?
6. If someone offered to buy you one of those rings, which you (choose)
7. The flight may be cancelled if the fog (get) thick.
8. If the milkman (come) tell him to leave two pints.
9. Someone (sit) on your glasses if you leave them there.
10. You would play better bridge if you (not talk) so much.

E.. Conditional sentences :mixed types

Finish these sentences, taking care to use the correct tenses.
1. If he had taken my advice………..
2. If you ate less……
3. We’ll send for the doctor if…..
4. If she practiced more…….
5. If there isn’t enough wine in that bottle…….
6. If you had checked the petrol before we started…………
7. This clock wouldn’t have run down if……..
8. Try on the blue one if………..
9. If these gates are locked……
10. If we leave before breakfast……..

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Grammar 4

Read the following “ihlasly” and you will get useful knowledge.

Baca dengan ihlas agar ilmu anda bermanfaat. Amiiiiin

Kerjakan seperti tugas grammar sebelumnya untuk 1 minggu yang akan datang.

A. can and be able

Part 1 can, used to express ability with could, shall/will be able

Fill the following spaces, using can for present, could for past and shall/will be able for future. There is no need to use other able forms in this section. Put to where necessary before the infinitives.

1     …………you stand on your head?

I…………when I was at school but I …………now.(2nd verb negative)

2.  When I’ve passed my driving test I…hire a car from our local garage.

3.  At the end of the month the Post Office will send him an enormous telephone bill        which he………..pay. (negative)

4.  I……..remember the address. (negative)-

………….you even remember the street? (negative)

5.  When the fog lifts we……..see where we are.

6.  You’ve  put too much in your rucksack; you never…….carry all that.

7.  When I was a child I………understand adults, and now that I am an adult  I……….understand children. (negative)

8.  When you have taken your degree you…….. put letters after your name?

9.  Don’t try to look at all the pictures in the gallery. Otherwise when you get home you…….. remember any of them. (negative)

10.  When I first went to Spain I………….read Spanish but I……….speak it. (2nd verb negative)

B.  may

Insert the correct form of may/might except in 10 and 36, where a be allowed form is necessary.

  1. It ………………rain, you’d better take a coat
  2. He said that it …………rain.
  3. We……… as well stay here till the weather improves.
  4. …………. I borrow your umbrella?
  5. You……….tell me. (I think I have a right to know.)
  6. Candidates……….. not bring textbooks into the examination room.
  7. People convicted of an offence……….. (have a right to) appeal.
  8. If he knew our address he………….come and see us.
  9. ……I come in?-Please do

10.  When he was a child he………(they let him) do exactly as he liked

C.  must and have to

Fill the spaces in the following sentences by inserting must or the present, future, or past from of have to

  1. She……leave home at eight every morning at present.
  2. Notice in a picture gallery: Cameras, sticks and umbrella……….be left at the desk.
  3. He  sees very badly; he…….wear glasses all the time.
  4. I………do all the typing at my office
  5. You………read this book. It’s really excellent.
  6. The children……..play in the streets till their mothers get home from work.
  7. She felt ill and…….. leave early
  8. Mr. Pitt…….cook is own meals. His wife is away.
  9. I hadn’t enough money and I………pay by coequal

10.  I never remember his address; I always……look it up

D. must not and need not

Use must not or need not to fill the spaces in the following sentences.

  1. You……….ring the bell; I have a key.
  2. Notice in cinema: Exit doors……….be locked during performances.
  3. You………drink this: it is poison.
  4. We………..drive fast; we have plenty of time.
  5. You……….drive fast; there is a speed limit here.
  6. Candidates……. Bring books into the examination room.
  7. You …… write to him for he will be here tomorrow.
  8. We……..make any noise or we’ll wake the baby.
  9. You…….bring an umbrella. It isn’t going to rain.

10.  You…. Do all the exercise. Ten sentences will be enough

E. Need not and don’t have to etc.

Replace the words in bold type by need not/ need I? etc., or a negative or interrogative have to form.

I’ve been invited to a wedding; but I can’t go. Will it be necessary for me to send a present?

Shall I have to send a present?

  1. It isn’t necessary for him to go on working. He has already reached retiring age. (He…..)
  2. Was it necessary for you to wait a long time for your bus?
  3. It isn’t necessary for me to water my tomato plants every day.
  4. It will be necessary for them to get up early when they go out to work every day.
  5. We had to stop at the frontier but we were not required to open our cases.
  6. It wasn’t necessary to walk. He took us in his car. (We…)
  7. My employer said, ‘ It shan’t requite you tomorrow.’ (You…….come)
  8. It is never necessary for me to work on Saturdays. won’t be necessary to live at
  9. When I am eighteen I’ll be of age. Then it won’t be necessary to live at home if I don’t want to.
  10. New teacher to his class: It isn’t necessary for you to call me ‘Sir’ call me ‘Bill’.

F. must, can’t and needn’t with the perfect infinitive

Must + perfect infinitive is used for affirmative deductions.

Can’t / couldn’t + infinitive is used for negative deductions.

Needn’t + perfect infinitive is used for a past action which was unnecessary but was performed.

Fill the spaces in the following sentences by using one of these forms + the perfect infinitive of the verbs in brackets.

  1. Did you hear me come in last night?-

No, I……..(be) asleep.

  1. I wonder who broke the wineglass; it……(be) the cat for she was out all day.
  2. You……(help) him. (You helped him but he didn’t need help.)
  3. I had my umbrella when I came out but I haven’t got it now. You …(leave) it on the bus.
  4. He….. (escape) by this window because it is barred.
  5. I……(give) L10. L5 would have been enough.
  6. I saw a rattlesnake near the river yesterday. You…. (see) a rattlesnake. There aren’t any rattlesnakes in this country.
  7. He is back already. He…….(start) very early.
  8. He returned home with a tiger cub. His wife (be) very pleased about that

10.  I bought two bottles of milk. You……..(buy) milk; we have heaps in the house.

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Tugas grammar 4

Soal grammar dipindah ke post di http://www.faizkhazin.ning.com

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STKIP PASURUAN

You are expected to do your assignment as soon as you read it.

Reading 4
Understand the meaning of this word “PARAPHRASE”. If you paraphrase a sentence, it means that you make a re-expression of somthing written or said in different words. Example: Uun asked Dian to make a song. The paraphrase of the sentence is Uun had Dian compose a song.
Your assignment:
1. Summerize MORNING AT SEVEN then paraphrase ten sentences you have written. 2. Just read my writing about reading in this post.
Grammar 4
Your assignment.
Group
1. Adjective clause
2. Tenses
3. Modals
4. Conditional sentences
5. Conjunctions
6. Indirect speech
7. Subjunctive
8. Comparison
9. Gerund and participles
10. Clause of reason, Time clauses
11. Passive voice
12. Particles and Preposition
Read any book or you can read the following:

REFERENCES:

Required:

Tomasouw, Pauline and Martani, Jeanne. 1986. STRUCTURE IV B. Jakarta: Universitas Terbuka

All of materials are steted here….

Thomson,A.J and Martinet,A.V. 1986.  A PRACTICAL ENGLISH GRAMMAR. Oxford: Oxford University Press

Suggested:

Quirk, Randolph.1976. A UNIVERSITY GRAMMAR OF ENGLISH. Printed in Hongkong

Etherton, ARB. MASTREING MODERN ENGLISH.

Nababan, P.W.J and Banun Stia. 1986. STRUCTURE IV A. Jakarta: Universitas Terbuka

Graver, B.D. 1978. ADVANCED UNIVERSITY PRACTICE.  Oxford University Press

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